KEYS TO GENERA AND SPECIES OF CALICIALES IN NORWAY

GENERA CALICIUM CHAENOTHECA CYPHELIUM MICROCALICIUM SCLEROPHORA

 

KEY TO GENERA

1 Hymenium pale brown or brown 2
1 Hymenium black or greenish black 3
     
2 Phycobiont Trentepohlia. Spores globose with a reticulate surface Sclerophora
2 Phycobiont Stichococcus or belonging to the Chlorococcales. Spores ellipsoid or globose with a cracked surface Chaenotheca
     
3 Mazaedium absent. Asci persistent or dissolving late 4
3 Mazaedium present. Asci dissolving at an early stage 5
     
4 Parasites/parasymbionts on Pertusaria. Apothecia almost sessile Sphinctrina
4 Saprophytes. Apothecia stalked [Mycocaliciaceae] Chaenothecopsis, Mycocalicium. Phaeocalicium, Stenocybe
     
5 Apothecia sessile or immersed 6
5 Apothecia stalked 8
     
6 Apothecia sessile. Mazaedium greenish black. A saprophyte, parasite on algae or parasite/parasymbiont on Caliciales species Microcalicium disseminatum
6 Apothecia sessile or immersed. Mazaedium black. Lichenized 7
     
7 Apothecia usually absent. Thallus with black isidia in globular areas. Medulla I+ dark blue. Thelomma ocellatum
7 Apothecia common. Isidia absent. Medulla I- Cyphelium
     
8 Mazaedium black. Spores 8-16 Ám long. Lichenized Calicium
8 Mazaedium greenish black or dark brown. Spores 5-8 Ám long. Saprophytes or parasites on algae Microcalicium

 

KEY TO CALICIUM

1 Pruina on apothecium yellow 2
1 Pruina on apothecium absent or of other colour 3
     
2 Thallus granular, grey. Asci clavate. Spores with a surface of spirally arranged ridges C. adspersum
2 Thallus endosubstratal. Asci cylindrical. Spores with a surface of irregular cracks C. trabinellum
     
3 Pruina brown, on the lower side of excipulum. Apothecia stout, large (0.9-1.9 mm) 4
3 Pruina absent or pruina white on excipulum margin. Apothecia smaller (0.4-1.3 mm) 5
     
4 Thallus granular, green. Asci clavate. Spores with a surface of irregular cracks C. viride
4 Thallus endosubstratal. Asci cylindrical. Spores with a surface of spirally arranged ridges C. salicinum
     
5 Thallus episubstratal, well developed, yellowish or greyish green 6
5 Thallus endosubstratal; or very poorly developed, green 7
     
6 Thallus yellowish green, farinaceous-granular. Apothecia very short (0.3-0.5 mm) C. corynellum
6 Thallus greyish green, verrucose-granular. Apothecia medium (0.7-1.0 mm) C. quercinum
     
7 Apothecium stalk I+ blue 8
7 Apothecium stalk I- 9
     
8 Stalk black. Apothecia medium (0.8-1.3 mm). Pruina white on excipular margin C. subquercinum
8 Stalk dark brown. Apothecia small (0.4-0.7 mm). Pruina absent C. adaequatum
     
9 Asci clavate. Pruina white on excipular margin. C. parvum
9 Asci cylindrical. Pruina white on excipular margin, or pruina absent. 10
     
10 Pruina white on excipular margin. Spores with a surface of irregular cracks C. glaucellum
10 Pruina absent. Spore surface various 11
     
11 Stalk black or dark brown, medium (0.6-0.9 mm). Spores with a warty surface C abietinum
11 Stalk black, long (0.7-1.3 mm). Spores with a slightly cracked surface C. denigratum

 

KEY TO CHAENOTHECA

1 Phycobiont Chlorococcales 2
1 Phycobiont Stichococcus 7
     
2 Pruina yellow 3
2 Pruina white or absent 6
     
3 Spores ellipsoid 4
3 Spores globose 5
     
4 Thallus yellow, verrucose or granular. Apothecia short (0.6-1.3 mm) C. chrysocephala
4 Thallus endosubstratal. Apothecia long (O.9-1.9 mm) C. laevigata
     
5 Thallus greenish brown, verrucose or squamulose. Apothecia stout. Lignicolous, or corticolous on Quercus. C. phaeocephala
5 Thallus greyish white, granular. Apothecia slender. Corticolous on Picea C. subroscida
     
6 Thallus greyish, granular, often with yellow, K+ red spots. Excipulum well developed. Spores 6-7.5 Ám C. ferruginea
6 Thallus endosubstratal. Excipulum poorly developed. Spores 3.5-4.5 Ám C. brunneola
     
7 Pruina yellowish green or bright yellow 8
7 Pruina white or reddish brown 10
     
8 Pruina bright yellow. Thallus greyish green. Spores ellipsoid C. carthusiae
8 Pruina yellowish green. Thallus endosubstratal or yellowish green. Spores globose 9
     
9 Thallus yellowish green. Apothecia long (1.6-2.7 mm). Mazaedium pale brown C. furfuracea
9 Thallus endosubstratal. Apothecia short (0.4-1.4 mm). Mazaedium dark brown C sulphurea
     
10 Apothecia flexuose, very long and slender (1.6-3.5 mm) 11
10 Apothecia not flexuose, shorter and stouter 12
     
11 Thallus farinaceous, greyish green. Pruina white, faint K-, on the lower side of excipulum. Mazaedium greyish brown C. gracilenta
11 Thallus endosubstratal. Pruina reddish brown, K+ violet, on the upper part of the apothecium. Mazaedium brown C. gracillima
     
12 Thallus granular, greyish white. Pruina white, dense, covering the whole apothecium C. cinerea
12 Thallus endosubstratal or green. Pruina white, faint. on the lower side of excipulum 13
     
13 Thallus endosubstratal C. xyloxena
13 Thallus episubstratal 14
     
14 Thallus verrucpse or squamulose, greyish green. Apothecia large (1.0-1.9 mm). Excipulum well developed. C. trichialis
14 Thallus farinaceous, green. Apothecia medium (0.8-1.4 mm). Excipulum poorly developed C. stemonea
     
Appendix: Species known from Sweden, but not from Norway:C. hispidula (Ach.) Zahlbr. Thallus endosubstratal. Phycobiont Trentepohlia. Excipulum well developed. Pruina yellow. Spores globose.

 

KEY TO CYPHELIUM

1 Thallus yellow 2
1 Thallus grey or greenlsn grey 3
     
2 Apothecia immersed. Excipulum thin at the base. Asci clavate. C. tigillare
2 Apothecia sessile. Excipulum thick at the base. Asci cylindrical C. pinicola
     
3 Thallus grey, thick. Spores with a smooth surface C. inquinans
3 Thallus qreenish grey, thin. Spores with a roughly cracked surface. C. karelicum
     
Appendix: Species known from Sweden, but not from Norway:
C. notarisii (Tul.) Blomb. & Forss. Thallus yellow. Apothecia immersed. Excipulum thin. Asci clavate. Spores submuriform, with a smooth surface.
     
C. sessile (Pers. ex. Merat) Trevis. Parasite/parasymbiont on Pertusaria. Apothecia sessile. Excipulum thick. Asci clavate. Spores with a cracked surface.

 

KEY TO MICROCALICIUM

1 Apothecia sessile. Spores 9-15 Ám long M. disseminatum
1 Apothecia stalked. Spores 6-8 Ám long 2
     
2 Lignicolous. Mazaedium greenish black, with sclerotized hyphae M. ahlneri
2 Saxicolous, or on roots. Mazaedium dark brown or greenish black, without sclerotized hyphae M. arenarium

 

KEY TO SCLEROPHORA

1 Apothecia pale or white, small (0.4-0.8 mm) 2
1 Apothecia brown, medium (0.7-1.5 mm) 3
     
2 Apothecia pale. Pruina reddish-brown, K+ violet. Spores 3.0-3.6 [m S. peronella
2 Apothecia white. Pruina yelIow, K-. Spores 7.2-8.4 [m S. nivea
     
3 Pruina on capitulum, violet, K-. Spores 6.6-7.8 [m S. farinacea
3 Pruina on the whole apothecium, reddish-brown, K+ violet. Spores 4.7-6.3 [m S. coniophaea